A Guide to Sawing & Piercing

https://www.cooksongold.com/blog/learn/a-guide-to-sawing-piercing/

Saw piercing is likely to be one of the first major tasks you attempt as a jeweller.  It is the first step in the transformation of a simple sheet of metal into something entirely different and holds endless possibilities.  Although most of us are familiar with the concept of sawing wood, many find metal a little temperamental at first, which is why we have put together this guide. Our aim is to help you with both tools and technique, which will, (in addition to some patience and practice), start you off on the correct path to successful sawing every time.

Sawing

Saw frames: A jewellers saw frame is similar in style to a small fretsaw and is made of springy steel which holds the blade in position under tension. Blades are held in place by wing-nut clamps at either end of the saw which are tightened by hand. The size of the saw is dictated by the depth from the blade to the back of the frame and they range in size from 3 inch to 6 inch. A 3 inch frame is a good general purpose size for small scale projects, but the choice is down to personal preference.

Another decision you need to make when purchasing your frame is whether you want an adjustable or a fixed design. An adjustable frame allows you to alter the size to accommodate broken blades where as a fixed design will only take standard size blades as they are sold.

There have been some new developments in frame design over the past few years and it is now possible to purchase more advanced versions which create the tension in the saw blade for you. One such design is from a company called Knew Concepts who have a range of lightweight aluminium frames which do not flex. Instead the tension is created via a cam-lever mechanism within the blade clamp, which enables a quick release and positioning of the blade with the flick of a lever. These particular clamps can also be turned 45 degrees which facilitates sawing into difficult areas.

Saw blades: Blades for a jewellers piercing saw are sold in bundles of 12, or by the gross (144) and come in a selection of grades which range from very coarse to extremely fine. Blades are characterized by the number of teeth per cm so for example the coarsest would be grade 4 which has 15 teeth per cm and the finest is grade 8/0 which has 30 teeth per cm. As a general rule, the thicker the metal, the coarser the blade you will need to cut it and vice versa. The table below contains all the information you will need to select the correct blade for the metal in question:

Saw blade Grade Blade Thickness mm Teeth per CM Drill Size mm Recommended gauge Of metal mm
Saw blade Grade 4 0.38 15 0.8 1.0 to 1.3
Saw blade Grade 3 0.36 16 0.8 0.9 to 1.2
Saw blade Grade 2 0.34 17.5 0.7 0.9 to 1.1
Saw blade Grade 1 0.3 19 0.7 0.8 to 1.0
Saw blade Grade 1/0 0.28 20.5 0.6 0.6 to 0.95
Saw blade Grade 2/0 0.26 22 0.55 0.6 to 0.8
Saw blade Grade 3/0 0.24 23.5 0.5 0.6 to 0.7
Saw blade Grade 4/0 0.22 26.5 0.5 0.5 to 0.6
Saw blade Grade 5/0 0.2 28 0.4 0.4 to 0.55
Saw blade Grade 6/0 0.18 32 0.4 0.35 to 0.5
Saw blade Grade 8/0 0.17 30 0.3 Up to 0.4

You will not need to purchase every grade of saw blade; a basic selection of coarse, medium and fine should be perfectly adequate. However, ensure you buy more of the medium grade (2/0 or 1/0) as these are what you will use most often.

Installing a blade into a saw:

  • Sit at your bench with your saw frame supported between your chest and the edge of the bench or the ‘V’ of your bench peg. The wooden handle should face you and the blade clamps should be at the top of the frame.
  • Position your blade with the teeth at the top, pointing towards you and clamp the end furthest away into your frame using the wing-nut. (Do not be tempted to tighten with pliers as this weakens the screw thread).
  • Then push gently against the handle with your chest which will cause the frame to flex, and tighten the second wing-nut to secure the blade.
  • Release the frame and check the tension of the blade by plucking it. You are looking for a distinctive ‘ping’ to show the tension is correct. If you don’t hear the ‘ping’ simply undo and repeat the process again until it’s right. (Failure to secure your blade with the right tension will result in it breaking as soon as you start to saw)

Marking out and measuring: Before starting to saw, your metal must be clearly marked and measured so you have a guide to work to. Lines can be scribed onto metal using a scriber or a set of dividers (which are similar to a compass but with two points). If you want to transfer a more complex design onto metal, copy it onto tracing paper and cover the reverse with graphite as normal. Then before transferring to the metal surface, rub it over lightly with Plasticine so that a sticky film is left, which will show up the pencil marks created when you re-trace. Once you have re-traced the design onto the metal, remove the tracing paper and go over the pencil lines with a scriber.

Starting to Saw:

  • Seat yourself at the bench and hold the work in position on the bench peg, holding the saw in your opposite hand.
  • Your saw should be held in a vertical position with the blade facing forward, and you should be seated so that your working area is around mid-chest height.
  • Position the blade on the outside of your marked line and gently draw the blade down. Remove the saw and repeat a couple of times until you have a small indent to guide the blade.
  • Now start to gently move the saw up and down remembering that the blade cuts on the downward motion and simply re-positions on the upward. If you are having trouble getting the blade to ‘bite’ you can apply some beeswax which is sold in blocks, to help ease the motion.
  • Saw on the outside of your marked line and try to maintain a steady and gentle action.
  • Once the cutting is complete, undo the clamp at the top of the saw and pull the frame down to remove it from the work, or simply bring it back along the cutting line if that is possible.
  • File the rough edge to finish.

Sawing straight lines: Straight lines are best tackled with the saw tilted slightly forward using long, smooth strokes.

Sawing curves: Curves call for much shorter strokes and require an upright sawing position. You need to gently turn the saw along the curve with each cut, taking care not to force the blade.

Troubleshooting:

My saw blades keep breaking: Don’t despair this is perfectly normal and practise makes perfect. However, check the tension of your blade for slackness and make sure you are using the correct blade size/metal combination.

My saw blades keep sticking: Apply some form of lubricant to ease the sawing motion. Some jewellers use spittle, but you can also use beeswax. Just run it along the blade and continue to saw.

My arm is hurting: Check your seating position is correct and try to relax. Also don’t be tempted to ‘force’ the saw, you are simply guiding it so let the blade will do the work.

Piercing

Why Pierce? Piercing is required when you need access to an area which would otherwise be difficult or impossible to reach e.g. the centre of a circle. By drilling a small hole you provide access to the saw blade which can then be fed through and re-clamped into the frame, allowing you to saw from the inside out, rather than the outside in.

Tools for Piercing: There are many different ways to drill a hole. You can use hand tools or mechanised tools; the principle is much the same. The most important thing to remember when drilling a hole is to keep your drill bit completely vertical and upright. This is why all drilling tools have an adjustable chuck to grip the drill bit tightly, whilst keeping it fully vertical. Chucks are either fully adjustable to take all sizes of drill or interchangeable, meaning you will need to alternate to accommodate different drill bits.

Scriber: A scriber is a fine marking tool with a long and narrow tip. It is used to scribe designs onto metal and can be used to mark the positions for drilling.

Centre punch: A centre punch is also a steel marker with a sharp point similar to a scriber. It has a shallow tip and is used in conjunction with a hammer to mark the position for subsequent drill holes. It is also possible to get automatic centre punches which don’t require a hammer and instead have a push button action.

Bow drill: A bow drill is a traditional hand drill which can be used with one hand. It has a simple twisting mechanism which is created with a pull/push motion using a wooden baton and a piece of string. It is easy to control and is ideal for a beginner.

Archimedian Hand Drill: This is a small spring loaded drill, which works using a handle at the top which is pushed down and pulled back up to rotate the chuck at the tip. This requires both hands to use effectively.

Pendant DrillA pendant motor is a multi-purpose, mechanised tool which has a suspended motor and a flexible shaft attached to a hand piece, which contains the chuck. It is controlled by a foot pedal and can be used with a huge range of different attachments including drill bits.

Rotary Hand DrillRotary hand drills have the motor contained within the hand piece and either run off of the power supply or can be charged up to use cordless. They have the same multi-purpose functionality of a pendant drill and can be used with a wide range of accessories. Rotary hand drills can be used in conjunction with a drill stand to ensure vertical drilling.

Bench Mounted Pillar Drill: This is the ultimate drilling tool and is used for solely that purpose. A sturdy base is combined with a movable chuck mounted on a column, which is controlled by a lever at the side. The base can facilitate a clamp to hold work securely helping to ensure a precise result every time.

Drill bits: The most common type of drill bits are twist drills which cut when rotated in a clockwise direction. They are made from a variety of toughened materials and range in size from 0.3mm upwards. Drills can become blunt surprisingly quickly so it’s advisable to buy multiples of the sizes you use most frequently.

Piercing an access hole for sawing:

  • Once your design is scribed onto the metal, identify a position within the waste material to drill a suitable hole.
  • Mark the position with a scriber or centre punch.
  • Select the correct drill size to correspond with the saw blade you intend to use, (please refer to chart) and insert into the chuck making sure it is gripped tightly.
  • Drill the hole. Start slowly making sure the drill bit has found its position. Once in position increase the speed and push down with a gentle but continuous pressure until all the way through. 
  • Now, undo your saw blade at the clamp nearest the handle and thread the blade through the hole from the top. Once through, re-clamp your blade making sure the tension is correct.
  • Saw out your shape.
  • Once sawing is complete, remove the saw by un-clamping the blade nearest the handle again.
  • File to finish.

Troubleshooting:

The drill keeps moving around and won’t find its position: Make sure you have marked the drilling position clearly with a tiny dent to guide the drill. Also ensure the drill is fitted correctly into the chuck, it may not be straight. Above all, ensure the drill itself is fully upright.

The drill is getting too hot: If the drill overheats you can cool it down using a small amount of water or an oil based drilling coolant. Failing that, simply stop and allow the tools to cool down.

My drill isn’t cutting: If the drill bit won’t ‘bite’ it may be because it is blunt or that the metal you are using is too hard for that particular type of drill. Some drills are tougher than others so check their suitability before you buy.

My drills keep breaking: A blunt drill bit will break more easily, as we instinctively apply more pressure if it doesn’t appear to be cutting. They are also prone to breakages if not secured correctly in the chuck.

Save this for later

Author: Cooksongold

A Guide to Sawing & Piercing

https://www.cooksongold.com/blog/learn/a-guide-to-sawing-piercing/

Saw piercing is likely to be one of the first major tasks you attempt as a jeweller.  It is the first step in the transformation of a simple sheet of metal into something entirely different and holds endless possibilities.  Although most of us are familiar with the concept of sawing wood, many find metal a little temperamental at first, which is why we have put together this guide. Our aim is to help you with both tools and technique, which will, (in addition to some patience and practice), start you off on the correct path to successful sawing every time.

Sawing

Saw frames: A jewellers saw frame is similar in style to a small fretsaw and is made of springy steel which holds the blade in position under tension. Blades are held in place by wing-nut clamps at either end of the saw which are tightened by hand. The size of the saw is dictated by the depth from the blade to the back of the frame and they range in size from 3 inch to 6 inch. A 3 inch frame is a good general purpose size for small scale projects, but the choice is down to personal preference.

Another decision you need to make when purchasing your frame is whether you want an adjustable or a fixed design. An adjustable frame allows you to alter the size to accommodate broken blades where as a fixed design will only take standard size blades as they are sold.

There have been some new developments in frame design over the past few years and it is now possible to purchase more advanced versions which create the tension in the saw blade for you. One such design is from a company called Knew Concepts who have a range of lightweight aluminium frames which do not flex. Instead the tension is created via a cam-lever mechanism within the blade clamp, which enables a quick release and positioning of the blade with the flick of a lever. These particular clamps can also be turned 45 degrees which facilitates sawing into difficult areas.

Saw blades: Blades for a jewellers piercing saw are sold in bundles of 12, or by the gross (144) and come in a selection of grades which range from very coarse to extremely fine. Blades are characterized by the number of teeth per cm so for example the coarsest would be grade 4 which has 15 teeth per cm and the finest is grade 8/0 which has 30 teeth per cm. As a general rule, the thicker the metal, the coarser the blade you will need to cut it and vice versa. The table below contains all the information you will need to select the correct blade for the metal in question:

Saw blade Grade Blade Thickness mm Teeth per CM Drill Size mm Recommended gauge Of metal mm
Saw blade Grade 4 0.38 15 0.8 1.0 to 1.3
Saw blade Grade 3 0.36 16 0.8 0.9 to 1.2
Saw blade Grade 2 0.34 17.5 0.7 0.9 to 1.1
Saw blade Grade 1 0.3 19 0.7 0.8 to 1.0
Saw blade Grade 1/0 0.28 20.5 0.6 0.6 to 0.95
Saw blade Grade 2/0 0.26 22 0.55 0.6 to 0.8
Saw blade Grade 3/0 0.24 23.5 0.5 0.6 to 0.7
Saw blade Grade 4/0 0.22 26.5 0.5 0.5 to 0.6
Saw blade Grade 5/0 0.2 28 0.4 0.4 to 0.55
Saw blade Grade 6/0 0.18 32 0.4 0.35 to 0.5
Saw blade Grade 8/0 0.17 30 0.3 Up to 0.4

You will not need to purchase every grade of saw blade; a basic selection of coarse, medium and fine should be perfectly adequate. However, ensure you buy more of the medium grade (2/0 or 1/0) as these are what you will use most often.

Installing a blade into a saw:

  • Sit at your bench with your saw frame supported between your chest and the edge of the bench or the ‘V’ of your bench peg. The wooden handle should face you and the blade clamps should be at the top of the frame.
  • Position your blade with the teeth at the top, pointing towards you and clamp the end furthest away into your frame using the wing-nut. (Do not be tempted to tighten with pliers as this weakens the screw thread).
  • Then push gently against the handle with your chest which will cause the frame to flex, and tighten the second wing-nut to secure the blade.
  • Release the frame and check the tension of the blade by plucking it. You are looking for a distinctive ‘ping’ to show the tension is correct. If you don’t hear the ‘ping’ simply undo and repeat the process again until it’s right. (Failure to secure your blade with the right tension will result in it breaking as soon as you start to saw)

Marking out and measuring: Before starting to saw, your metal must be clearly marked and measured so you have a guide to work to. Lines can be scribed onto metal using a scriber or a set of dividers (which are similar to a compass but with two points). If you want to transfer a more complex design onto metal, copy it onto tracing paper and cover the reverse with graphite as normal. Then before transferring to the metal surface, rub it over lightly with Plasticine so that a sticky film is left, which will show up the pencil marks created when you re-trace. Once you have re-traced the design onto the metal, remove the tracing paper and go over the pencil lines with a scriber.

Starting to Saw:

  • Seat yourself at the bench and hold the work in position on the bench peg, holding the saw in your opposite hand.
  • Your saw should be held in a vertical position with the blade facing forward, and you should be seated so that your working area is around mid-chest height.
  • Position the blade on the outside of your marked line and gently draw the blade down. Remove the saw and repeat a couple of times until you have a small indent to guide the blade.
  • Now start to gently move the saw up and down remembering that the blade cuts on the downward motion and simply re-positions on the upward. If you are having trouble getting the blade to ‘bite’ you can apply some beeswax which is sold in blocks, to help ease the motion.
  • Saw on the outside of your marked line and try to maintain a steady and gentle action.
  • Once the cutting is complete, undo the clamp at the top of the saw and pull the frame down to remove it from the work, or simply bring it back along the cutting line if that is possible.
  • File the rough edge to finish.

Sawing straight lines: Straight lines are best tackled with the saw tilted slightly forward using long, smooth strokes.

Sawing curves: Curves call for much shorter strokes and require an upright sawing position. You need to gently turn the saw along the curve with each cut, taking care not to force the blade.

Troubleshooting:

My saw blades keep breaking: Don’t despair this is perfectly normal and practise makes perfect. However, check the tension of your blade for slackness and make sure you are using the correct blade size/metal combination.

My saw blades keep sticking: Apply some form of lubricant to ease the sawing motion. Some jewellers use spittle, but you can also use beeswax. Just run it along the blade and continue to saw.

My arm is hurting: Check your seating position is correct and try to relax. Also don’t be tempted to ‘force’ the saw, you are simply guiding it so let the blade will do the work.

Piercing

Why Pierce? Piercing is required when you need access to an area which would otherwise be difficult or impossible to reach e.g. the centre of a circle. By drilling a small hole you provide access to the saw blade which can then be fed through and re-clamped into the frame, allowing you to saw from the inside out, rather than the outside in.

Tools for Piercing: There are many different ways to drill a hole. You can use hand tools or mechanised tools; the principle is much the same. The most important thing to remember when drilling a hole is to keep your drill bit completely vertical and upright. This is why all drilling tools have an adjustable chuck to grip the drill bit tightly, whilst keeping it fully vertical. Chucks are either fully adjustable to take all sizes of drill or interchangeable, meaning you will need to alternate to accommodate different drill bits.

Scriber: A scriber is a fine marking tool with a long and narrow tip. It is used to scribe designs onto metal and can be used to mark the positions for drilling.

Centre punch: A centre punch is also a steel marker with a sharp point similar to a scriber. It has a shallow tip and is used in conjunction with a hammer to mark the position for subsequent drill holes. It is also possible to get automatic centre punches which don’t require a hammer and instead have a push button action.

Bow drill: A bow drill is a traditional hand drill which can be used with one hand. It has a simple twisting mechanism which is created with a pull/push motion using a wooden baton and a piece of string. It is easy to control and is ideal for a beginner.

Archimedian Hand Drill: This is a small spring loaded drill, which works using a handle at the top which is pushed down and pulled back up to rotate the chuck at the tip. This requires both hands to use effectively.

Pendant DrillA pendant motor is a multi-purpose, mechanised tool which has a suspended motor and a flexible shaft attached to a hand piece, which contains the chuck. It is controlled by a foot pedal and can be used with a huge range of different attachments including drill bits.

Rotary Hand DrillRotary hand drills have the motor contained within the hand piece and either run off of the power supply or can be charged up to use cordless. They have the same multi-purpose functionality of a pendant drill and can be used with a wide range of accessories. Rotary hand drills can be used in conjunction with a drill stand to ensure vertical drilling.

Bench Mounted Pillar Drill: This is the ultimate drilling tool and is used for solely that purpose. A sturdy base is combined with a movable chuck mounted on a column, which is controlled by a lever at the side. The base can facilitate a clamp to hold work securely helping to ensure a precise result every time.

Drill bits: The most common type of drill bits are twist drills which cut when rotated in a clockwise direction. They are made from a variety of toughened materials and range in size from 0.3mm upwards. Drills can become blunt surprisingly quickly so it’s advisable to buy multiples of the sizes you use most frequently.

Piercing an access hole for sawing:

  • Once your design is scribed onto the metal, identify a position within the waste material to drill a suitable hole.
  • Mark the position with a scriber or centre punch.
  • Select the correct drill size to correspond with the saw blade you intend to use, (please refer to chart) and insert into the chuck making sure it is gripped tightly.
  • Drill the hole. Start slowly making sure the drill bit has found its position. Once in position increase the speed and push down with a gentle but continuous pressure until all the way through. 
  • Now, undo your saw blade at the clamp nearest the handle and thread the blade through the hole from the top. Once through, re-clamp your blade making sure the tension is correct.
  • Saw out your shape.
  • Once sawing is complete, remove the saw by un-clamping the blade nearest the handle again.
  • File to finish.

Troubleshooting:

The drill keeps moving around and won’t find its position: Make sure you have marked the drilling position clearly with a tiny dent to guide the drill. Also ensure the drill is fitted correctly into the chuck, it may not be straight. Above all, ensure the drill itself is fully upright.

The drill is getting too hot: If the drill overheats you can cool it down using a small amount of water or an oil based drilling coolant. Failing that, simply stop and allow the tools to cool down.

My drill isn’t cutting: If the drill bit won’t ‘bite’ it may be because it is blunt or that the metal you are using is too hard for that particular type of drill. Some drills are tougher than others so check their suitability before you buy.

My drills keep breaking: A blunt drill bit will break more easily, as we instinctively apply more pressure if it doesn’t appear to be cutting. They are also prone to breakages if not secured correctly in the chuck.

Save this for later

Author: Cooksongold

A Guide to Sawing & Piercing

https://www.cooksongold.com/blog/learn/a-guide-to-sawing-piercing/

Saw piercing is likely to be one of the first major tasks you attempt as a jeweller.  It is the first step in the transformation of a simple sheet of metal into something entirely different and holds endless possibilities.  Although most of us are familiar with the concept of sawing wood, many find metal a little temperamental at first, which is why we have put together this guide. Our aim is to help you with both tools and technique, which will, (in addition to some patience and practice), start you off on the correct path to successful sawing every time.

Sawing

Saw frames: A jewellers saw frame is similar in style to a small fretsaw and is made of springy steel which holds the blade in position under tension. Blades are held in place by wing-nut clamps at either end of the saw which are tightened by hand. The size of the saw is dictated by the depth from the blade to the back of the frame and they range in size from 3 inch to 6 inch. A 3 inch frame is a good general purpose size for small scale projects, but the choice is down to personal preference.

Another decision you need to make when purchasing your frame is whether you want an adjustable or a fixed design. An adjustable frame allows you to alter the size to accommodate broken blades where as a fixed design will only take standard size blades as they are sold.

There have been some new developments in frame design over the past few years and it is now possible to purchase more advanced versions which create the tension in the saw blade for you. One such design is from a company called Knew Concepts who have a range of lightweight aluminium frames which do not flex. Instead the tension is created via a cam-lever mechanism within the blade clamp, which enables a quick release and positioning of the blade with the flick of a lever. These particular clamps can also be turned 45 degrees which facilitates sawing into difficult areas.

Saw blades: Blades for a jewellers piercing saw are sold in bundles of 12, or by the gross (144) and come in a selection of grades which range from very coarse to extremely fine. Blades are characterized by the number of teeth per cm so for example the coarsest would be grade 4 which has 15 teeth per cm and the finest is grade 8/0 which has 30 teeth per cm. As a general rule, the thicker the metal, the coarser the blade you will need to cut it and vice versa. The table below contains all the information you will need to select the correct blade for the metal in question:

Saw blade Grade Blade Thickness mm Teeth per CM Drill Size mm Recommended gauge Of metal mm
Saw blade Grade 4 0.38 15 0.8 1.0 to 1.3
Saw blade Grade 3 0.36 16 0.8 0.9 to 1.2
Saw blade Grade 2 0.34 17.5 0.7 0.9 to 1.1
Saw blade Grade 1 0.3 19 0.7 0.8 to 1.0
Saw blade Grade 1/0 0.28 20.5 0.6 0.6 to 0.95
Saw blade Grade 2/0 0.26 22 0.55 0.6 to 0.8
Saw blade Grade 3/0 0.24 23.5 0.5 0.6 to 0.7
Saw blade Grade 4/0 0.22 26.5 0.5 0.5 to 0.6
Saw blade Grade 5/0 0.2 28 0.4 0.4 to 0.55
Saw blade Grade 6/0 0.18 32 0.4 0.35 to 0.5
Saw blade Grade 8/0 0.17 30 0.3 Up to 0.4

You will not need to purchase every grade of saw blade; a basic selection of coarse, medium and fine should be perfectly adequate. However, ensure you buy more of the medium grade (2/0 or 1/0) as these are what you will use most often.

Installing a blade into a saw:

  • Sit at your bench with your saw frame supported between your chest and the edge of the bench or the ‘V’ of your bench peg. The wooden handle should face you and the blade clamps should be at the top of the frame.
  • Position your blade with the teeth at the top, pointing towards you and clamp the end furthest away into your frame using the wing-nut. (Do not be tempted to tighten with pliers as this weakens the screw thread).
  • Then push gently against the handle with your chest which will cause the frame to flex, and tighten the second wing-nut to secure the blade.
  • Release the frame and check the tension of the blade by plucking it. You are looking for a distinctive ‘ping’ to show the tension is correct. If you don’t hear the ‘ping’ simply undo and repeat the process again until it’s right. (Failure to secure your blade with the right tension will result in it breaking as soon as you start to saw)

Marking out and measuring: Before starting to saw, your metal must be clearly marked and measured so you have a guide to work to. Lines can be scribed onto metal using a scriber or a set of dividers (which are similar to a compass but with two points). If you want to transfer a more complex design onto metal, copy it onto tracing paper and cover the reverse with graphite as normal. Then before transferring to the metal surface, rub it over lightly with Plasticine so that a sticky film is left, which will show up the pencil marks created when you re-trace. Once you have re-traced the design onto the metal, remove the tracing paper and go over the pencil lines with a scriber.

Starting to Saw:

  • Seat yourself at the bench and hold the work in position on the bench peg, holding the saw in your opposite hand.
  • Your saw should be held in a vertical position with the blade facing forward, and you should be seated so that your working area is around mid-chest height.
  • Position the blade on the outside of your marked line and gently draw the blade down. Remove the saw and repeat a couple of times until you have a small indent to guide the blade.
  • Now start to gently move the saw up and down remembering that the blade cuts on the downward motion and simply re-positions on the upward. If you are having trouble getting the blade to ‘bite’ you can apply some beeswax which is sold in blocks, to help ease the motion.
  • Saw on the outside of your marked line and try to maintain a steady and gentle action.
  • Once the cutting is complete, undo the clamp at the top of the saw and pull the frame down to remove it from the work, or simply bring it back along the cutting line if that is possible.
  • File the rough edge to finish.

Sawing straight lines: Straight lines are best tackled with the saw tilted slightly forward using long, smooth strokes.

Sawing curves: Curves call for much shorter strokes and require an upright sawing position. You need to gently turn the saw along the curve with each cut, taking care not to force the blade.

Troubleshooting:

My saw blades keep breaking: Don’t despair this is perfectly normal and practise makes perfect. However, check the tension of your blade for slackness and make sure you are using the correct blade size/metal combination.

My saw blades keep sticking: Apply some form of lubricant to ease the sawing motion. Some jewellers use spittle, but you can also use beeswax. Just run it along the blade and continue to saw.

My arm is hurting: Check your seating position is correct and try to relax. Also don’t be tempted to ‘force’ the saw, you are simply guiding it so let the blade will do the work.

Piercing

Why Pierce? Piercing is required when you need access to an area which would otherwise be difficult or impossible to reach e.g. the centre of a circle. By drilling a small hole you provide access to the saw blade which can then be fed through and re-clamped into the frame, allowing you to saw from the inside out, rather than the outside in.

Tools for Piercing: There are many different ways to drill a hole. You can use hand tools or mechanised tools; the principle is much the same. The most important thing to remember when drilling a hole is to keep your drill bit completely vertical and upright. This is why all drilling tools have an adjustable chuck to grip the drill bit tightly, whilst keeping it fully vertical. Chucks are either fully adjustable to take all sizes of drill or interchangeable, meaning you will need to alternate to accommodate different drill bits.

Scriber: A scriber is a fine marking tool with a long and narrow tip. It is used to scribe designs onto metal and can be used to mark the positions for drilling.

Centre punch: A centre punch is also a steel marker with a sharp point similar to a scriber. It has a shallow tip and is used in conjunction with a hammer to mark the position for subsequent drill holes. It is also possible to get automatic centre punches which don’t require a hammer and instead have a push button action.

Bow drill: A bow drill is a traditional hand drill which can be used with one hand. It has a simple twisting mechanism which is created with a pull/push motion using a wooden baton and a piece of string. It is easy to control and is ideal for a beginner.

Archimedian Hand Drill: This is a small spring loaded drill, which works using a handle at the top which is pushed down and pulled back up to rotate the chuck at the tip. This requires both hands to use effectively.

Pendant DrillA pendant motor is a multi-purpose, mechanised tool which has a suspended motor and a flexible shaft attached to a hand piece, which contains the chuck. It is controlled by a foot pedal and can be used with a huge range of different attachments including drill bits.

Rotary Hand DrillRotary hand drills have the motor contained within the hand piece and either run off of the power supply or can be charged up to use cordless. They have the same multi-purpose functionality of a pendant drill and can be used with a wide range of accessories. Rotary hand drills can be used in conjunction with a drill stand to ensure vertical drilling.

Bench Mounted Pillar Drill: This is the ultimate drilling tool and is used for solely that purpose. A sturdy base is combined with a movable chuck mounted on a column, which is controlled by a lever at the side. The base can facilitate a clamp to hold work securely helping to ensure a precise result every time.

Drill bits: The most common type of drill bits are twist drills which cut when rotated in a clockwise direction. They are made from a variety of toughened materials and range in size from 0.3mm upwards. Drills can become blunt surprisingly quickly so it’s advisable to buy multiples of the sizes you use most frequently.

Piercing an access hole for sawing:

  • Once your design is scribed onto the metal, identify a position within the waste material to drill a suitable hole.
  • Mark the position with a scriber or centre punch.
  • Select the correct drill size to correspond with the saw blade you intend to use, (please refer to chart) and insert into the chuck making sure it is gripped tightly.
  • Drill the hole. Start slowly making sure the drill bit has found its position. Once in position increase the speed and push down with a gentle but continuous pressure until all the way through. 
  • Now, undo your saw blade at the clamp nearest the handle and thread the blade through the hole from the top. Once through, re-clamp your blade making sure the tension is correct.
  • Saw out your shape.
  • Once sawing is complete, remove the saw by un-clamping the blade nearest the handle again.
  • File to finish.

Troubleshooting:

The drill keeps moving around and won’t find its position: Make sure you have marked the drilling position clearly with a tiny dent to guide the drill. Also ensure the drill is fitted correctly into the chuck, it may not be straight. Above all, ensure the drill itself is fully upright.

The drill is getting too hot: If the drill overheats you can cool it down using a small amount of water or an oil based drilling coolant. Failing that, simply stop and allow the tools to cool down.

My drill isn’t cutting: If the drill bit won’t ‘bite’ it may be because it is blunt or that the metal you are using is too hard for that particular type of drill. Some drills are tougher than others so check their suitability before you buy.

My drills keep breaking: A blunt drill bit will break more easily, as we instinctively apply more pressure if it doesn’t appear to be cutting. They are also prone to breakages if not secured correctly in the chuck.

Save this for later

Author: Cooksongold

A Guide to Sawing & Piercing

https://www.cooksongold.com/blog/learn/a-guide-to-sawing-piercing/

Saw piercing is likely to be one of the first major tasks you attempt as a jeweller.  It is the first step in the transformation of a simple sheet of metal into something entirely different and holds endless possibilities.  Although most of us are familiar with the concept of sawing wood, many find metal a little temperamental at first, which is why we have put together this guide. Our aim is to help you with both tools and technique, which will, (in addition to some patience and practice), start you off on the correct path to successful sawing every time.

Sawing

Saw frames: A jewellers saw frame is similar in style to a small fretsaw and is made of springy steel which holds the blade in position under tension. Blades are held in place by wing-nut clamps at either end of the saw which are tightened by hand. The size of the saw is dictated by the depth from the blade to the back of the frame and they range in size from 3 inch to 6 inch. A 3 inch frame is a good general purpose size for small scale projects, but the choice is down to personal preference.

Another decision you need to make when purchasing your frame is whether you want an adjustable or a fixed design. An adjustable frame allows you to alter the size to accommodate broken blades where as a fixed design will only take standard size blades as they are sold.

There have been some new developments in frame design over the past few years and it is now possible to purchase more advanced versions which create the tension in the saw blade for you. One such design is from a company called Knew Concepts who have a range of lightweight aluminium frames which do not flex. Instead the tension is created via a cam-lever mechanism within the blade clamp, which enables a quick release and positioning of the blade with the flick of a lever. These particular clamps can also be turned 45 degrees which facilitates sawing into difficult areas.

Saw blades: Blades for a jewellers piercing saw are sold in bundles of 12, or by the gross (144) and come in a selection of grades which range from very coarse to extremely fine. Blades are characterized by the number of teeth per cm so for example the coarsest would be grade 4 which has 15 teeth per cm and the finest is grade 8/0 which has 30 teeth per cm. As a general rule, the thicker the metal, the coarser the blade you will need to cut it and vice versa. The table below contains all the information you will need to select the correct blade for the metal in question:

Saw blade Grade Blade Thickness mm Teeth per CM Drill Size mm Recommended gauge Of metal mm
Saw blade Grade 4 0.38 15 0.8 1.0 to 1.3
Saw blade Grade 3 0.36 16 0.8 0.9 to 1.2
Saw blade Grade 2 0.34 17.5 0.7 0.9 to 1.1
Saw blade Grade 1 0.3 19 0.7 0.8 to 1.0
Saw blade Grade 1/0 0.28 20.5 0.6 0.6 to 0.95
Saw blade Grade 2/0 0.26 22 0.55 0.6 to 0.8
Saw blade Grade 3/0 0.24 23.5 0.5 0.6 to 0.7
Saw blade Grade 4/0 0.22 26.5 0.5 0.5 to 0.6
Saw blade Grade 5/0 0.2 28 0.4 0.4 to 0.55
Saw blade Grade 6/0 0.18 32 0.4 0.35 to 0.5
Saw blade Grade 8/0 0.17 30 0.3 Up to 0.4

You will not need to purchase every grade of saw blade; a basic selection of coarse, medium and fine should be perfectly adequate. However, ensure you buy more of the medium grade (2/0 or 1/0) as these are what you will use most often.

Installing a blade into a saw:

  • Sit at your bench with your saw frame supported between your chest and the edge of the bench or the ‘V’ of your bench peg. The wooden handle should face you and the blade clamps should be at the top of the frame.
  • Position your blade with the teeth at the top, pointing towards you and clamp the end furthest away into your frame using the wing-nut. (Do not be tempted to tighten with pliers as this weakens the screw thread).
  • Then push gently against the handle with your chest which will cause the frame to flex, and tighten the second wing-nut to secure the blade.
  • Release the frame and check the tension of the blade by plucking it. You are looking for a distinctive ‘ping’ to show the tension is correct. If you don’t hear the ‘ping’ simply undo and repeat the process again until it’s right. (Failure to secure your blade with the right tension will result in it breaking as soon as you start to saw)

Marking out and measuring: Before starting to saw, your metal must be clearly marked and measured so you have a guide to work to. Lines can be scribed onto metal using a scriber or a set of dividers (which are similar to a compass but with two points). If you want to transfer a more complex design onto metal, copy it onto tracing paper and cover the reverse with graphite as normal. Then before transferring to the metal surface, rub it over lightly with Plasticine so that a sticky film is left, which will show up the pencil marks created when you re-trace. Once you have re-traced the design onto the metal, remove the tracing paper and go over the pencil lines with a scriber.

Starting to Saw:

  • Seat yourself at the bench and hold the work in position on the bench peg, holding the saw in your opposite hand.
  • Your saw should be held in a vertical position with the blade facing forward, and you should be seated so that your working area is around mid-chest height.
  • Position the blade on the outside of your marked line and gently draw the blade down. Remove the saw and repeat a couple of times until you have a small indent to guide the blade.
  • Now start to gently move the saw up and down remembering that the blade cuts on the downward motion and simply re-positions on the upward. If you are having trouble getting the blade to ‘bite’ you can apply some beeswax which is sold in blocks, to help ease the motion.
  • Saw on the outside of your marked line and try to maintain a steady and gentle action.
  • Once the cutting is complete, undo the clamp at the top of the saw and pull the frame down to remove it from the work, or simply bring it back along the cutting line if that is possible.
  • File the rough edge to finish.

Sawing straight lines: Straight lines are best tackled with the saw tilted slightly forward using long, smooth strokes.

Sawing curves: Curves call for much shorter strokes and require an upright sawing position. You need to gently turn the saw along the curve with each cut, taking care not to force the blade.

Troubleshooting:

My saw blades keep breaking: Don’t despair this is perfectly normal and practise makes perfect. However, check the tension of your blade for slackness and make sure you are using the correct blade size/metal combination.

My saw blades keep sticking: Apply some form of lubricant to ease the sawing motion. Some jewellers use spittle, but you can also use beeswax. Just run it along the blade and continue to saw.

My arm is hurting: Check your seating position is correct and try to relax. Also don’t be tempted to ‘force’ the saw, you are simply guiding it so let the blade will do the work.

Piercing

Why Pierce? Piercing is required when you need access to an area which would otherwise be difficult or impossible to reach e.g. the centre of a circle. By drilling a small hole you provide access to the saw blade which can then be fed through and re-clamped into the frame, allowing you to saw from the inside out, rather than the outside in.

Tools for Piercing: There are many different ways to drill a hole. You can use hand tools or mechanised tools; the principle is much the same. The most important thing to remember when drilling a hole is to keep your drill bit completely vertical and upright. This is why all drilling tools have an adjustable chuck to grip the drill bit tightly, whilst keeping it fully vertical. Chucks are either fully adjustable to take all sizes of drill or interchangeable, meaning you will need to alternate to accommodate different drill bits.

Scriber: A scriber is a fine marking tool with a long and narrow tip. It is used to scribe designs onto metal and can be used to mark the positions for drilling.

Centre punch: A centre punch is also a steel marker with a sharp point similar to a scriber. It has a shallow tip and is used in conjunction with a hammer to mark the position for subsequent drill holes. It is also possible to get automatic centre punches which don’t require a hammer and instead have a push button action.

Bow drill: A bow drill is a traditional hand drill which can be used with one hand. It has a simple twisting mechanism which is created with a pull/push motion using a wooden baton and a piece of string. It is easy to control and is ideal for a beginner.

Archimedian Hand Drill: This is a small spring loaded drill, which works using a handle at the top which is pushed down and pulled back up to rotate the chuck at the tip. This requires both hands to use effectively.

Pendant DrillA pendant motor is a multi-purpose, mechanised tool which has a suspended motor and a flexible shaft attached to a hand piece, which contains the chuck. It is controlled by a foot pedal and can be used with a huge range of different attachments including drill bits.

Rotary Hand DrillRotary hand drills have the motor contained within the hand piece and either run off of the power supply or can be charged up to use cordless. They have the same multi-purpose functionality of a pendant drill and can be used with a wide range of accessories. Rotary hand drills can be used in conjunction with a drill stand to ensure vertical drilling.

Bench Mounted Pillar Drill: This is the ultimate drilling tool and is used for solely that purpose. A sturdy base is combined with a movable chuck mounted on a column, which is controlled by a lever at the side. The base can facilitate a clamp to hold work securely helping to ensure a precise result every time.

Drill bits: The most common type of drill bits are twist drills which cut when rotated in a clockwise direction. They are made from a variety of toughened materials and range in size from 0.3mm upwards. Drills can become blunt surprisingly quickly so it’s advisable to buy multiples of the sizes you use most frequently.

Piercing an access hole for sawing:

  • Once your design is scribed onto the metal, identify a position within the waste material to drill a suitable hole.
  • Mark the position with a scriber or centre punch.
  • Select the correct drill size to correspond with the saw blade you intend to use, (please refer to chart) and insert into the chuck making sure it is gripped tightly.
  • Drill the hole. Start slowly making sure the drill bit has found its position. Once in position increase the speed and push down with a gentle but continuous pressure until all the way through. 
  • Now, undo your saw blade at the clamp nearest the handle and thread the blade through the hole from the top. Once through, re-clamp your blade making sure the tension is correct.
  • Saw out your shape.
  • Once sawing is complete, remove the saw by un-clamping the blade nearest the handle again.
  • File to finish.

Troubleshooting:

The drill keeps moving around and won’t find its position: Make sure you have marked the drilling position clearly with a tiny dent to guide the drill. Also ensure the drill is fitted correctly into the chuck, it may not be straight. Above all, ensure the drill itself is fully upright.

The drill is getting too hot: If the drill overheats you can cool it down using a small amount of water or an oil based drilling coolant. Failing that, simply stop and allow the tools to cool down.

My drill isn’t cutting: If the drill bit won’t ‘bite’ it may be because it is blunt or that the metal you are using is too hard for that particular type of drill. Some drills are tougher than others so check their suitability before you buy.

My drills keep breaking: A blunt drill bit will break more easily, as we instinctively apply more pressure if it doesn’t appear to be cutting. They are also prone to breakages if not secured correctly in the chuck.

Save this for later

Author: Cooksongold

A Guide to Sawing & Piercing

https://www.cooksongold.com/blog/learn/a-guide-to-sawing-piercing/

Saw piercing is likely to be one of the first major tasks you attempt as a jeweller.  It is the first step in the transformation of a simple sheet of metal into something entirely different and holds endless possibilities.  Although most of us are familiar with the concept of sawing wood, many find metal a little temperamental at first, which is why we have put together this guide. Our aim is to help you with both tools and technique, which will, (in addition to some patience and practice), start you off on the correct path to successful sawing every time.

Sawing

Saw frames: A jewellers saw frame is similar in style to a small fretsaw and is made of springy steel which holds the blade in position under tension. Blades are held in place by wing-nut clamps at either end of the saw which are tightened by hand. The size of the saw is dictated by the depth from the blade to the back of the frame and they range in size from 3 inch to 6 inch. A 3 inch frame is a good general purpose size for small scale projects, but the choice is down to personal preference.

Another decision you need to make when purchasing your frame is whether you want an adjustable or a fixed design. An adjustable frame allows you to alter the size to accommodate broken blades where as a fixed design will only take standard size blades as they are sold.

There have been some new developments in frame design over the past few years and it is now possible to purchase more advanced versions which create the tension in the saw blade for you. One such design is from a company called Knew Concepts who have a range of lightweight aluminium frames which do not flex. Instead the tension is created via a cam-lever mechanism within the blade clamp, which enables a quick release and positioning of the blade with the flick of a lever. These particular clamps can also be turned 45 degrees which facilitates sawing into difficult areas.

Saw blades: Blades for a jewellers piercing saw are sold in bundles of 12, or by the gross (144) and come in a selection of grades which range from very coarse to extremely fine. Blades are characterized by the number of teeth per cm so for example the coarsest would be grade 4 which has 15 teeth per cm and the finest is grade 8/0 which has 30 teeth per cm. As a general rule, the thicker the metal, the coarser the blade you will need to cut it and vice versa. The table below contains all the information you will need to select the correct blade for the metal in question:

Saw blade Grade Blade Thickness mm Teeth per CM Drill Size mm Recommended gauge Of metal mm
Saw blade Grade 4 0.38 15 0.8 1.0 to 1.3
Saw blade Grade 3 0.36 16 0.8 0.9 to 1.2
Saw blade Grade 2 0.34 17.5 0.7 0.9 to 1.1
Saw blade Grade 1 0.3 19 0.7 0.8 to 1.0
Saw blade Grade 1/0 0.28 20.5 0.6 0.6 to 0.95
Saw blade Grade 2/0 0.26 22 0.55 0.6 to 0.8
Saw blade Grade 3/0 0.24 23.5 0.5 0.6 to 0.7
Saw blade Grade 4/0 0.22 26.5 0.5 0.5 to 0.6
Saw blade Grade 5/0 0.2 28 0.4 0.4 to 0.55
Saw blade Grade 6/0 0.18 32 0.4 0.35 to 0.5
Saw blade Grade 8/0 0.17 30 0.3 Up to 0.4

You will not need to purchase every grade of saw blade; a basic selection of coarse, medium and fine should be perfectly adequate. However, ensure you buy more of the medium grade (2/0 or 1/0) as these are what you will use most often.

Installing a blade into a saw:

  • Sit at your bench with your saw frame supported between your chest and the edge of the bench or the ‘V’ of your bench peg. The wooden handle should face you and the blade clamps should be at the top of the frame.
  • Position your blade with the teeth at the top, pointing towards you and clamp the end furthest away into your frame using the wing-nut. (Do not be tempted to tighten with pliers as this weakens the screw thread).
  • Then push gently against the handle with your chest which will cause the frame to flex, and tighten the second wing-nut to secure the blade.
  • Release the frame and check the tension of the blade by plucking it. You are looking for a distinctive ‘ping’ to show the tension is correct. If you don’t hear the ‘ping’ simply undo and repeat the process again until it’s right. (Failure to secure your blade with the right tension will result in it breaking as soon as you start to saw)

Marking out and measuring: Before starting to saw, your metal must be clearly marked and measured so you have a guide to work to. Lines can be scribed onto metal using a scriber or a set of dividers (which are similar to a compass but with two points). If you want to transfer a more complex design onto metal, copy it onto tracing paper and cover the reverse with graphite as normal. Then before transferring to the metal surface, rub it over lightly with Plasticine so that a sticky film is left, which will show up the pencil marks created when you re-trace. Once you have re-traced the design onto the metal, remove the tracing paper and go over the pencil lines with a scriber.

Starting to Saw:

  • Seat yourself at the bench and hold the work in position on the bench peg, holding the saw in your opposite hand.
  • Your saw should be held in a vertical position with the blade facing forward, and you should be seated so that your working area is around mid-chest height.
  • Position the blade on the outside of your marked line and gently draw the blade down. Remove the saw and repeat a couple of times until you have a small indent to guide the blade.
  • Now start to gently move the saw up and down remembering that the blade cuts on the downward motion and simply re-positions on the upward. If you are having trouble getting the blade to ‘bite’ you can apply some beeswax which is sold in blocks, to help ease the motion.
  • Saw on the outside of your marked line and try to maintain a steady and gentle action.
  • Once the cutting is complete, undo the clamp at the top of the saw and pull the frame down to remove it from the work, or simply bring it back along the cutting line if that is possible.
  • File the rough edge to finish.

Sawing straight lines: Straight lines are best tackled with the saw tilted slightly forward using long, smooth strokes.

Sawing curves: Curves call for much shorter strokes and require an upright sawing position. You need to gently turn the saw along the curve with each cut, taking care not to force the blade.

Troubleshooting:

My saw blades keep breaking: Don’t despair this is perfectly normal and practise makes perfect. However, check the tension of your blade for slackness and make sure you are using the correct blade size/metal combination.

My saw blades keep sticking: Apply some form of lubricant to ease the sawing motion. Some jewellers use spittle, but you can also use beeswax. Just run it along the blade and continue to saw.

My arm is hurting: Check your seating position is correct and try to relax. Also don’t be tempted to ‘force’ the saw, you are simply guiding it so let the blade will do the work.

Piercing

Why Pierce? Piercing is required when you need access to an area which would otherwise be difficult or impossible to reach e.g. the centre of a circle. By drilling a small hole you provide access to the saw blade which can then be fed through and re-clamped into the frame, allowing you to saw from the inside out, rather than the outside in.

Tools for Piercing: There are many different ways to drill a hole. You can use hand tools or mechanised tools; the principle is much the same. The most important thing to remember when drilling a hole is to keep your drill bit completely vertical and upright. This is why all drilling tools have an adjustable chuck to grip the drill bit tightly, whilst keeping it fully vertical. Chucks are either fully adjustable to take all sizes of drill or interchangeable, meaning you will need to alternate to accommodate different drill bits.

Scriber: A scriber is a fine marking tool with a long and narrow tip. It is used to scribe designs onto metal and can be used to mark the positions for drilling.

Centre punch: A centre punch is also a steel marker with a sharp point similar to a scriber. It has a shallow tip and is used in conjunction with a hammer to mark the position for subsequent drill holes. It is also possible to get automatic centre punches which don’t require a hammer and instead have a push button action.

Bow drill: A bow drill is a traditional hand drill which can be used with one hand. It has a simple twisting mechanism which is created with a pull/push motion using a wooden baton and a piece of string. It is easy to control and is ideal for a beginner.

Archimedian Hand Drill: This is a small spring loaded drill, which works using a handle at the top which is pushed down and pulled back up to rotate the chuck at the tip. This requires both hands to use effectively.

Pendant DrillA pendant motor is a multi-purpose, mechanised tool which has a suspended motor and a flexible shaft attached to a hand piece, which contains the chuck. It is controlled by a foot pedal and can be used with a huge range of different attachments including drill bits.

Rotary Hand DrillRotary hand drills have the motor contained within the hand piece and either run off of the power supply or can be charged up to use cordless. They have the same multi-purpose functionality of a pendant drill and can be used with a wide range of accessories. Rotary hand drills can be used in conjunction with a drill stand to ensure vertical drilling.

Bench Mounted Pillar Drill: This is the ultimate drilling tool and is used for solely that purpose. A sturdy base is combined with a movable chuck mounted on a column, which is controlled by a lever at the side. The base can facilitate a clamp to hold work securely helping to ensure a precise result every time.

Drill bits: The most common type of drill bits are twist drills which cut when rotated in a clockwise direction. They are made from a variety of toughened materials and range in size from 0.3mm upwards. Drills can become blunt surprisingly quickly so it’s advisable to buy multiples of the sizes you use most frequently.

Piercing an access hole for sawing:

  • Once your design is scribed onto the metal, identify a position within the waste material to drill a suitable hole.
  • Mark the position with a scriber or centre punch.
  • Select the correct drill size to correspond with the saw blade you intend to use, (please refer to chart) and insert into the chuck making sure it is gripped tightly.
  • Drill the hole. Start slowly making sure the drill bit has found its position. Once in position increase the speed and push down with a gentle but continuous pressure until all the way through. 
  • Now, undo your saw blade at the clamp nearest the handle and thread the blade through the hole from the top. Once through, re-clamp your blade making sure the tension is correct.
  • Saw out your shape.
  • Once sawing is complete, remove the saw by un-clamping the blade nearest the handle again.
  • File to finish.

Troubleshooting:

The drill keeps moving around and won’t find its position: Make sure you have marked the drilling position clearly with a tiny dent to guide the drill. Also ensure the drill is fitted correctly into the chuck, it may not be straight. Above all, ensure the drill itself is fully upright.

The drill is getting too hot: If the drill overheats you can cool it down using a small amount of water or an oil based drilling coolant. Failing that, simply stop and allow the tools to cool down.

My drill isn’t cutting: If the drill bit won’t ‘bite’ it may be because it is blunt or that the metal you are using is too hard for that particular type of drill. Some drills are tougher than others so check their suitability before you buy.

My drills keep breaking: A blunt drill bit will break more easily, as we instinctively apply more pressure if it doesn’t appear to be cutting. They are also prone to breakages if not secured correctly in the chuck.

Save this for later

Author: Cooksongold

A Guide to Sawing & Piercing

https://www.cooksongold.com/blog/learn/a-guide-to-sawing-piercing/

There have been some new developments in frame style over the past couple of years and it is now possible to purchase advanced variations which create the stress in the saw blade for you. One such style is from a business called Knew Concepts who have a series of lightweight aluminium frames which do not flex. Instead the tension is produced by means of a cam-lever mechanism within the blade clamp, which allows a quick release and positioning of the blade with the flick of a lever. These specific clamps can also be turned 45 degrees which facilitates sawing into challenging locations.

Sawing

Another choice you require to make when buying your frame is whether you desire an adjustable or a fixed style. An adjustable frame allows you to change the size to accommodate broken blades where as a fixed design will just take standard size blades as they are offered.

Saw piercing is likely to be among the first major tasks you try as a jeweller. It is the initial step in the change of a simple sheet of metal into something completely different and holds unlimited possibilities. Although many of us recognize with the principle of sawing wood, numerous find metal a little unstable initially, which is why we have created this guide. Our objective is to help you with both tools and method, which will, (in addition to some patience and practice), begin you off on the right path to successful sawing every time.

Saw frames: A jewellers saw frame is similar in design to a little fretsaw and is made from springy steel which holds the blade in position under stress. Blades are kept in place by wing-nut clamps at either end of the saw which are tightened up by hand. The size of the saw is dictated by the depth from the blade to the back of the frame and they vary in size from 3 inch to 6 inch. A 3 inch frame is a great general purpose size for little scale tasks, however the choice is down to individual preference.

Saw blades: Blades for a jewellers piercing saw are sold in packages of 12, or by the gross (144) and can be found in a selection of grades which vary from very coarse to incredibly fine. Blades are identified by the number of teeth per cm so for instance the coarsest would be grade 4 which has 15 teeth per cm and the finest is grade 8/0 which has 30 teeth per cm. As a general guideline, the thicker the metal, the coarser the blade you will require to suffice and vice versa. The table below includes all the info you will need to pick the right blade for the metal in question:

Saw blade Grade

Blade Thickness mm

Teeth per CM

Drill Size mm

Recommended gauge Of metal mm

Saw blade Grade 5/0
0.2
28
0.4
0.4 to 0.55

Saw blade Grade 3/0
0.24
23.5
0.5
0.6 to 0.7

Saw blade Grade 3
0.36
16
0.8
0.9 to 1.2

Saw blade Grade 4
0.38
15
0.8
1.0 to 1.3

Saw blade Grade 4/0
0.22
26.5
0.5
0.5 to 0.6

Saw blade Grade 6/0
0.18
32
0.4
0.35 to 0.5

Saw blade Grade 2/0
0.26
22
0.55
0.6 to 0.8

Saw blade Grade 1
0.3
19
0.7
0.8 to 1.0

You will not require to buy every grade of saw blade; a fundamental selection of coarse, medium and fine should be perfectly appropriate. However, ensure you purchase more of the medium grade (2/0 or 1/0) as these are what you will use most frequently.

Saw blade Grade 8/0
0.17
30
0.3
As much as 0.4

Saw blade Grade 2
0.34
17.5
0.7
0.9 to 1.1

Saw blade Grade 1/0
0.28
20.5
0.6
0.6 to 0.95

Setting up a blade into a saw:

Centre punch: A centre punch is also a steel marker with a sharp point comparable to a scriber. It is and has a shallow suggestion used in conjunction with a hammer to mark the position for subsequent drill holes. It is also possible to get automatic centre punches which dont need a hammer and instead have a push button action.

Sawing straight lines: Straight lines are best taken on with the saw slanted a little forward using long, smooth strokes.

Bench Mounted Pillar Drill: This is the supreme drilling tool and is used for exclusively that function. A tough base is integrated with a movable chuck installed on a column, which is managed by a lever at the side. The base can help with a clamp to hold work securely helping to ensure a precise result whenever.

Starting to Saw:.

The drill is getting too hot: If the drill overheats you can cool it down utilizing a little amount of water or an oil based drilling coolant. Failing that, merely stop and allow the tools to cool off.

Repairing:.

Saw frames: A jewellers saw frame is similar in style to a little fretsaw and is made of springy steel which holds the blade in position under stress. There have been some new developments in frame design over the previous few years and it is now possible to buy more innovative variations which create the tension in the saw blade for you. Rather the stress is produced by means of a cam-lever system within the blade clamp, which enables a quick release and positioning of the blade with the flick of a lever. Saw blades: Blades for a jewellers piercing saw are sold in bundles of 12, or by the gross (144) and come in a choice of grades which vary from extremely coarse to very great. By drilling a small hole you provide access to the saw blade which can then be fed through and re-clamped into the frame, enabling you to saw from the inside out, rather than the outside in.

Why Pierce? When you require access to an area which would otherwise be difficult or difficult to reach e.g. the centre of a circle, piercing is needed. By drilling a little hole you provide access to the saw blade which can then be fed through and re-clamped into the frame, allowing you to saw from the within out, rather than the outside in.

Seat yourself at the bench and hold the work in position on the bench peg, holding the saw in your opposite hand.
Your saw must be held in a vertical position with the blade dealing with forward, and you need to be seated so that your workspace is around mid-chest height.
Position the blade on the exterior of your significant line and gently draw the blade down. Remove the saw and repeat a couple of times until you have a little indent to guide the blade.
Now begin to carefully move the saw up and down bearing in mind that the blade cuts on the down motion and merely re-positions on the upward. If you are having problem getting the blade to bite you can use some beeswax which is offered in blocks, to assist alleviate the motion.
Saw on the exterior of your significant line and attempt to preserve a constant and mild action.
As soon as the cutting is total, reverse the clamp at the top of the saw and pull the frame to eliminate it from the work, or merely bring it back along the cutting line if that is possible.
Submit the rough edge to finish.

My saw blades keep sticking: Apply some kind of lube to alleviate the sawing motion. Some jewellers utilize spittle, but you can likewise utilize beeswax. Simply run it along the blade and continue to saw.

Scriber: A scriber is a great marking tool with a narrow and long tip. It is utilized to scribe designs onto metal and can be utilized to mark the positions for drilling.

Troubleshooting:.

Piercing an access hole for sawing:.

As soon as your style is scribed onto the metal, identify a position within the waste material to drill an ideal hole.
Mark the position with a scriber or centre punch.
Select the proper drill size to correspond with the saw blade you mean to use, (please describe chart) and insert into the chuck ensuring it is grasped firmly.
Drill the hole. Start slowly making certain the drill bit has actually discovered its position. When in position increase the speed and press down with a continuous but gentle pressure up until all the way through..
Now, reverse your saw blade at the clamp nearest the manage and thread the blade through the hole from the top. Once through, re-clamp your blade ensuring the tension is correct.
Saw out your shape.
Get rid of the saw by un-clamping the blade nearest the manage again when sawing is complete.
File to end up.

Save this for later on.

Bow drill: A bow drill is a traditional hand drill which can be used with one hand. It has a basic twisting mechanism which is created with a pull/push motion using a wooden baton and a piece of string. It is simple to control and is ideal for a novice.

My saw blades keep breaking: Dont anguish this is completely typical and practise makes best. However, check the stress of your blade for slackness and make sure you are using the proper blade size/metal mix.

Tools for Piercing: There are various ways to drill a hole. You can utilize hand tools or mechanised tools; the principle is much the exact same. The most crucial thing to keep in mind when drilling a hole is to keep your drill bit completely vertical and upright. This is why all drilling tools have an adjustable chuck to grip the drill bit securely, whilst keeping it totally vertical. Chucks are either fully adjustable to take all sizes of drill or interchangeable, suggesting you will need to alternate to accommodate various drill bits.

Rotary Hand Drill: Rotary hand drills have the motor included within the hand piece and either run of the power supply or can be charged up to use cordless. They have the same multi-purpose performance of a pendant drill and can be utilized with a vast array of accessories. Rotary hand drills can be used in conjunction with a drill stand to make sure vertical drilling.

Marking out and measuring: Before beginning to saw, your metal must be plainly marked and measured so you have a guide to work to. Lines can be scribed onto metal using a scriber or a set of dividers (which resemble a compass however with two points). Copy it onto tracing paper and cover the reverse with graphite as normal if you desire to move a more complicated style onto metal. Then before transferring to the metal surface, rub it over gently with Plasticine so that a sticky movie is left, which will show up the pencil marks developed when you re-trace. Remove the tracing paper and go over the pencil lines with a scriber when you have re-traced the design onto the metal.

Archimedian Hand Drill: This is a small spring filled drill, which works using a handle at the top which is pushed down and pulled back as much as turn the chuck at the idea. This requires both hands to utilize successfully.

My arm is injuring: Check your seating position is appropriate and try to relax. Dont be tempted to force the saw, you are merely guiding it so let the blade will do the work.

My drills keep breaking: A blunt drill bit will break more quickly, as we intuitively use more pressure if it does not seem cutting. They are likewise prone to breakages if not protected properly in the chuck.

Drill bits: The most common kind of drill bits are twist drills which cut when rotated in a clockwise direction. They are made from a range of toughened materials and variety in size from 0.3 mm upwards. Drills can end up being blunt surprisingly rapidly so its suggested to purchase multiples of the sizes you utilize most frequently.

Piercing.

Pendant Drill: A pendant motor is a multi-purpose, mechanised tool which has actually a suspended motor and a versatile shaft connected to a hand piece, which includes the chuck. It is managed by a foot pedal and can be used with a huge variety of various accessories including drill bits.

My drill isnt cutting: If the drill bit will not bite it may be since it is blunt or that the metal you are utilizing is too difficult for that particular type of drill. Some drills are harder than others so inspect their viability prior to you purchase.

Sawing curves: Curves call for much shorter strokes and require an upright sawing position. You require to carefully turn the saw along the curve with each cut, making sure not to force the blade.

Sit at your bench with your saw frame supported in between your chest and the edge of the bench or the V of your bench peg. The wooden manage must face you and the blade secures need to be at the top of the frame.
Position your blade with the teeth at the top, pointing towards you and clamp the end outermost away into your frame utilizing the wing-nut. (Do not be tempted to tighten up with pliers as this compromises the screw thread).
Push gently against the manage with your chest which will trigger the frame to flex, and tighten up the second wing-nut to secure the blade.
Release the frame and examine the stress of the blade by plucking it. (Failure to secure your blade with the best tension will result in it breaking as soon as you begin to saw).

The drill keeps moving around and will not discover its position: Make sure you have marked the drilling position plainly with a small damage to guide the drill. Guarantee the drill is fitted correctly into the chuck, it might not be directly. Above all, make sure the drill itself is completely upright.

A Guide to Sawing & Piercing

https://www.cooksongold.com/blog/learn/a-guide-to-sawing-piercing/

Another choice you need to make when purchasing your frame is whether you want an adjustable or a set style. An adjustable frame enables you to change the size to accommodate broken blades where as a fixed style will just take basic size blades as they are offered.

Saw frames: A jewellers saw frame is comparable in design to a small fretsaw and is made of springy steel which holds the blade in position under tension. The size of the saw is determined by the depth from the blade to the back of the frame and they range in size from 3 inch to 6 inch.

There have been some new advancements in frame design over the previous couple of years and it is now possible to purchase more advanced versions which produce the tension in the saw blade for you. One such style is from a company called Knew Concepts who have a series of light-weight aluminium frames which do not flex. Instead the tension is created through a cam-lever system within the blade clamp, which enables a quick release and positioning of the blade with the flick of a lever. These specific clamps can also be turned 45 degrees which assists in sawing into challenging locations.

Sawing

Many of us are familiar with the idea of sawing wood, many discover metal a little temperamental at first, which is why we have put together this guide. Our aim is to assist you with both tools and technique, which will, (in addition to some perseverance and practice), start you off on the proper path to successful sawing every time.

Saw blades: Blades for a jewellers piercing saw are sold in packages of 12, or by the gross (144) and come in a selection of grades which range from really coarse to exceptionally fine. The table below consists of all the info you will need to pick the correct blade for the metal in concern:

Saw blade Grade

Blade Thickness mm

Teeth per CM

Drill Size mm

Suggested gauge Of metal mm

Saw blade Grade 1/0
0.28
20.5
0.6
0.6 to 0.95

You will not require to purchase every grade of saw blade; a fundamental selection of coarse, medium and fine must be perfectly adequate. Ensure you purchase more of the medium grade (2/0 or 1/0) as these are what you will utilize most frequently.

Saw blade Grade 2/0
0.26
22
0.55
0.6 to 0.8

Saw blade Grade 4/0
0.22
26.5
0.5
0.5 to 0.6

Saw blade Grade 6/0
0.18
32
0.4
0.35 to 0.5

Saw blade Grade 3/0
0.24
23.5
0.5
0.6 to 0.7

Saw blade Grade 3
0.36
16
0.8
0.9 to 1.2

Saw blade Grade 8/0
0.17
30
0.3
As much as 0.4

Saw blade Grade 2
0.34
17.5
0.7
0.9 to 1.1

Saw blade Grade 4
0.38
15
0.8
1.0 to 1.3

Saw blade Grade 5/0
0.2
28
0.4
0.4 to 0.55

Saw blade Grade 1
0.3
19
0.7
0.8 to 1.0

Installing a blade into a saw:

Why Pierce? Piercing is required when you require access to a location which would otherwise be hard or difficult to reach e.g. the centre of a circle. By drilling a little hole you offer access to the saw blade which can then be fed through and re-clamped into the frame, allowing you to saw from the within out, rather than the outside in.

Marking out and measuring: Before beginning to saw, your metal should be plainly marked and measured so you have a guide to work to. Lines can be scribed onto metal using a scriber or a set of dividers (which resemble a compass however with 2 points). Copy it onto tracing paper and cover the reverse with graphite as regular if you want to transfer a more complicated design onto metal. Then prior to moving to the metal surface, rub it over lightly with Plasticine so that a sticky film is left, which will reveal up the pencil marks developed when you re-trace. Remove the tracing paper and go over the pencil lines with a scriber as soon as you have actually re-traced the design onto the metal.

My saw blades keep sticking: Apply some form of lubricant to ease the sawing movement. Some jewellers use spittle, but you can also use beeswax. Just run it along the blade and continue to saw.

Repairing:.

Archimedian Hand Drill: This is a little spring filled drill, which works utilizing a deal with at the top which is pushed down and drew back approximately turn the chuck at the tip. This needs both hands to use successfully.

Starting to Saw:.

Piercing a gain access to hole for sawing:.

When your style is scribed onto the metal, determine a position within the waste product to drill a suitable hole.
Mark the position with a scriber or centre punch.
Select the correct drill size to correspond with the saw blade you plan to use, (please refer to chart) and insert into the chuck ensuring it is grasped securely.
Drill the hole. Start slowly making sure the drill bit has actually discovered its position. Once in position increase the speed and push down with a gentle but continuous pressure up until all the way through..
Now, reverse your saw blade at the clamp nearest the manage and thread the blade through the hole from the top. As soon as through, re-clamp your blade making certain the stress is appropriate.
Saw out your shape.
Eliminate the saw by un-clamping the blade nearest the handle once again when sawing is total.
Submit to complete.

The drill keeps moving and wont find its position: Make sure you have marked the drilling position plainly with a tiny dent to guide the drill. Ensure the drill is fitted properly into the chuck, it may not be straight. Above all, make sure the drill itself is completely upright.

Sawing curves: Curves call for much shorter strokes and need an upright sawing position. You need to gently turn the saw along the curve with each cut, taking care not to force the blade.

Piercing.

Pendant Drill: A pendant motor is a multi-purpose, mechanised tool which has actually a suspended motor and a flexible shaft connected to a hand piece, which consists of the chuck. It is managed by a foot pedal and can be utilized with a big variety of various attachments including drill bits.

Bench Mounted Pillar Drill: This is the supreme drilling tool and is used for entirely that purpose. A durable base is integrated with a movable chuck mounted on a column, which is managed by a lever at the side. The base can facilitate a clamp to hold work safely assisting to guarantee a precise outcome every time.

Scriber: A scriber is a great marking tool with a narrow and long suggestion. It is used to scribe designs onto metal and can be used to mark the positions for drilling.

Repairing:.

Centre punch: A centre punch is also a steel marker with a sharp point comparable to a scriber. It has a shallow idea and is used in conjunction with a hammer to mark the position for subsequent drill holes. It is likewise possible to get automated centre punches which dont require a hammer and instead have a push button action.

My drills keep breaking: A blunt drill bit will break more quickly, as we intuitively use more pressure if it does not appear to be cutting. They are also susceptible to damages if not secured correctly in the chuck.

Sawing straight lines: Straight lines are best tackled with the saw tilted a little forward using long, smooth strokes.

My arm is injuring: Check your seating position is proper and try to unwind. Dont be tempted to require the saw, you are just assisting it so let the blade will do the work.

Bow drill: A bow drill is a conventional hand drill which can be used with one hand. It has a simple twisting mechanism which is created with a pull/push motion using a wooden baton and a piece of string. It is simple to control and is perfect for a newbie.

Tools for Piercing: There are lots of various methods to drill a hole. You can utilize hand tools or mechanised tools; the concept is much the exact same. When drilling a hole is to keep your drill bit upright and totally vertical, the most important thing to remember. This is why all drilling tools have an adjustable chuck to grip the drill bit securely, whilst keeping it fully vertical. Chucks are either totally adjustable to take all sizes of drill or interchangeable, suggesting you will need to alternate to accommodate various drill bits.

The drill is getting too hot: If the drill overheats you can cool it down using a little quantity of water or an oil based drilling coolant. Stopping working that, simply stop and permit the tools to cool down.

Seat yourself at the bench and hold the operate in position on the bench peg, holding the saw in your opposite hand.
Your saw should be held in a vertical position with the blade facing forward, and you must be seated so that your working area is around mid-chest height.
Position the blade on the outside of your significant line and carefully draw the blade down. Remove the saw and repeat a couple of times until you have a little indent to direct the blade.
Now start to carefully move the saw up and down keeping in mind that the blade cuts on the down motion and just re-positions on the upward. If you are having trouble getting the blade to bite you can apply some beeswax which is offered in blocks, to assist reduce the motion.
Saw on the exterior of your significant line and attempt to preserve a stable and gentle action.
When the cutting is total, reverse the clamp at the top of the saw and pull the frame to remove it from the work, or simply bring it back along the cutting line if that is possible.
File the rough edge to finish.

Saw frames: A jewellers saw frame is comparable in style to a little fretsaw and is made of springy steel which holds the blade in position under tension. There have been some new developments in frame style over the past couple of years and it is now possible to buy more innovative variations which develop the stress in the saw blade for you. Instead the stress is created by means of a cam-lever mechanism within the blade clamp, which allows a quick release and positioning of the blade with the flick of a lever. Saw blades: Blades for a jewellers piercing saw are sold in packages of 12, or by the gross (144) and come in a choice of grades which range from very coarse to very great. By drilling a little hole you supply access to the saw blade which can then be fed through and re-clamped into the frame, allowing you to saw from the within out, rather than the outdoors in.

Drill bits: The most common kind of drill bits are twist drills which cut when turned in a clockwise direction. They are made from a variety of toughened products and range in size from 0.3 mm upwards. Drills can end up being blunt surprisingly quickly so its suggested to purchase multiples of the sizes you use most regularly.

My saw blades keep breaking: Dont despair this is perfectly normal and practise makes ideal. Nevertheless, check the stress of your blade for slackness and ensure you are utilizing the appropriate blade size/metal combination.

My drill isnt cutting: If the drill bit wont bite it might be because it is blunt or that the metal you are utilizing is too hard for that specific kind of drill. Some drills are harder than others so inspect their suitability prior to you buy.

Sit at your bench with your saw frame supported in between your chest and the edge of the bench or the V of your bench peg. The wood deal with should face you and the blade clamps need to be at the top of the frame.
Position your blade with the teeth at the top, pointing towards you and clamp completion furthest away into your frame using the wing-nut. (Do not be tempted to tighten with pliers as this damages the screw thread).
Then push gently versus the manage with your chest which will trigger the frame to bend, and tighten up the second wing-nut to secure the blade.
Launch the frame and check the stress of the blade by plucking it. You are trying to find a distinct ping to show the tension is appropriate. If you do not hear the ping merely undo and repeat the procedure once again till its best. (Failure to protect your blade with the ideal tension will lead to it breaking as quickly as you start to saw).

Rotary Hand Drill: Rotary hand drills have the motor consisted of within the hand piece and either run off of the power supply or can be charged up to utilize cordless. They have the very same multi-purpose functionality of a pendant drill and can be used with a wide variety of accessories. Rotary hand drills can be used in combination with a drill stand to ensure vertical drilling.

Conserve this for later.

A Guide to Sawing & Piercing

https://www.cooksongold.com/blog/learn/a-guide-to-sawing-piercing/

Saw piercing is likely to be among the first major tasks you attempt as a jeweller. It is the initial step in the improvement of an easy sheet of metal into something completely different and holds endless possibilities. Although many of us are familiar with the principle of sawing wood, numerous discover metal a little unstable initially, which is why we have actually created this guide. Our aim is to help you with both tools and strategy, which will, (in addition to some patience and practice), start you off on the appropriate path to effective sawing every time.

Another choice you require to make when acquiring your frame is whether you desire an adjustable or a fixed style. An adjustable frame enables you to modify the size to accommodate damaged blades where as a set design will only take basic size blades as they are offered.

Sawing

Saw frames: A jewellers saw frame is similar in style to a little fretsaw and is made of springy steel which holds the blade in position under tension. Blades are kept in location by wing-nut clamps at either end of the saw which are tightened by hand. The size of the saw is determined by the depth from the blade to the back of the frame and they vary in size from 3 inch to 6 inch. A 3 inch frame is a good general purpose size for little scale projects, but the choice is down to personal choice.

There have actually been some brand-new advancements in frame style over the previous couple of years and it is now possible to acquire more innovative versions which produce the tension in the saw blade for you. Instead the tension is developed via a cam-lever system within the blade clamp, which enables a quick release and positioning of the blade with the flick of a lever.

Saw blades: Blades for a jewellers piercing saw are sold in packages of 12, or by the gross (144) and come in a selection of grades which vary from extremely coarse to extremely great. The table listed below contains all the information you will need to choose the correct blade for the metal in question:

Saw blade Grade

Blade Thickness mm

Teeth per CM

Drill Size mm

Recommended gauge Of metal mm

Saw blade Grade 3/0
0.24
23.5
0.5
0.6 to 0.7

Saw blade Grade 8/0
0.17
30
0.3
Approximately 0.4

Saw blade Grade 2/0
0.26
22
0.55
0.6 to 0.8

Saw blade Grade 6/0
0.18
32
0.4
0.35 to 0.5

You will not need to buy every grade of saw blade; a standard selection of coarse, medium and fine should be perfectly appropriate. Nevertheless, guarantee you purchase more of the medium grade (2/0 or 1/0) as these are what you will use most frequently.

Saw blade Grade 2
0.34
17.5
0.7
0.9 to 1.1

Saw blade Grade 4/0
0.22
26.5
0.5
0.5 to 0.6

Saw blade Grade 1/0
0.28
20.5
0.6
0.6 to 0.95

Saw blade Grade 4
0.38
15
0.8
1.0 to 1.3

Saw blade Grade 3
0.36
16
0.8
0.9 to 1.2

Saw blade Grade 1
0.3
19
0.7
0.8 to 1.0

Saw blade Grade 5/0
0.2
28
0.4
0.4 to 0.55

Setting up a blade into a saw:

Bench Mounted Pillar Drill: This is the ultimate drilling tool and is utilized for solely that purpose. A tough base is integrated with a movable chuck mounted on a column, which is controlled by a lever at the side. The base can help with a clamp to hold work firmly helping to make sure an exact outcome whenever.

Marking out and measuring: Before starting to saw, your metal should be clearly marked and measured so you have a guide to work to. Lines can be scribed onto metal using a scriber or a set of dividers (which are similar to a compass but with two points). If you want to transfer a more complicated design onto metal, copy it onto tracing paper and cover the reverse with graphite as normal. Then prior to moving to the metal surface area, rub it over gently with Plasticine so that a sticky film is left, which will appear the pencil marks produced when you re-trace. As soon as you have re-traced the style onto the metal, eliminate the tracing paper and go over the pencil lines with a scriber.

Archimedian Hand Drill: This is a small spring filled drill, which works using a manage at the top which is lowered and drew back approximately turn the chuck at the tip. This requires both hands to use efficiently.

Centre punch: A centre punch is likewise a steel marker with a sharp point comparable to a scriber. It is and has a shallow pointer used in conjunction with a hammer to mark the position for subsequent drill holes. It is also possible to get automatic centre punches which dont require a hammer and rather have a push button action.

Starting to Saw:.

Piercing a gain access to hole for sawing:.

Once your design is scribed onto the metal, recognize a position within the waste product to drill an appropriate hole.
Mark the position with a scriber or centre punch.
Select the appropriate drill size to refer the saw blade you plan to use, (please describe chart) and insert into the chuck ensuring it is gripped tightly.
Drill the hole. Start slowly ensuring the drill bit has actually discovered its position. As soon as in position increase the speed and push down with a mild but constant pressure until all the method through..
Now, reverse your saw blade at the clamp nearest the deal with and thread the blade through the hole from the top. Once through, re-clamp your blade ensuring the tension is correct.
Saw out your shape.
Remove the saw by un-clamping the blade nearest the manage again once sawing is total.
Submit to end up.

Tools for Piercing: There are various methods to drill a hole. You can utilize hand tools or mechanised tools; the concept is much the same. The most essential thing to remember when drilling a hole is to keep your drill bit upright and completely vertical. This is why all drilling tools have an adjustable chuck to grip the drill bit securely, whilst keeping it completely vertical. Chucks are either totally adjustable to take all sizes of drill or interchangeable, meaning you will need to alternate to accommodate different drill bits.

Piercing.

Sawing straight lines: Straight lines are best taken on with the saw slanted a little forward utilizing long, smooth strokes.

My drill isnt cutting: If the drill bit will not bite it might be due to the fact that it is blunt or that the metal you are using is too tough for that particular type of drill. Some drills are harder than others so inspect their suitability prior to you purchase.

Seat yourself at the bench and hold the work in position on the bench peg, holding the saw in your opposite hand.
Your saw needs to be kept in a vertical position with the blade facing forward, and you ought to be seated so that your workspace is around mid-chest height.
Position the blade on the outside of your significant line and carefully draw the blade down. Get rid of the saw and repeat a number of times up until you have a small indent to assist the blade.
Now begin to gently move the saw up and down bearing in mind that the blade cuts on the downward movement and merely re-positions on the upward. If you are having trouble getting the blade to bite you can use some beeswax which is offered in blocks, to assist reduce the motion.
Saw on the exterior of your marked line and try to preserve a gentle and steady action.
As soon as the cutting is total, reverse the clamp at the top of the saw and pull the frame to eliminate it from the work, or simply bring it back along the cutting line if that is possible.
Submit the rough edge to complete.

The drill is getting too hot: If the drill overheats you can cool it down using a little quantity of water or an oil based drilling coolant. Failing that, merely stop and permit the tools to cool down.

My saw blades keep sticking: Apply some kind of lube to reduce the sawing motion. Some jewellers use spittle, however you can also utilize beeswax. Just run it along the blade and continue to saw.

The drill keeps moving around and will not discover its position: Make sure you have marked the drilling position plainly with a tiny damage to direct the drill. Also guarantee the drill is fitted correctly into the chuck, it may not be directly. Above all, guarantee the drill itself is completely upright.

Bow drill: A bow drill is a standard hand drill which can be used with one hand. It has a basic twisting system which is developed with a pull/push motion using a wooden baton and a piece of string. It is simple to manage and is ideal for a beginner.

My drills keep breaking: A blunt drill bit will break more quickly, as we instinctively use more pressure if it does not appear to be cutting. They are also vulnerable to breakages if not protected correctly in the chuck.

Saw frames: A jewellers saw frame is comparable in style to a little fretsaw and is made of springy steel which holds the blade in position under stress. There have actually been some brand-new developments in frame style over the previous couple of years and it is now possible to buy more innovative versions which create the tension in the saw blade for you. Rather the tension is developed by means of a cam-lever mechanism within the blade clamp, which enables a fast release and positioning of the blade with the flick of a lever. Saw blades: Blades for a jewellers piercing saw are offered in packages of 12, or by the gross (144) and come in a selection of grades which vary from really coarse to very great. By drilling a small hole you supply access to the saw blade which can then be fed through and re-clamped into the frame, enabling you to saw from the within out, rather than the outdoors in.

Sit at your bench with your saw frame supported between your chest and the edge of the bench or the V of your bench peg. The wooden deal with need to face you and the blade clamps need to be at the top of the frame.
Position your blade with the teeth at the top, pointing towards you and clamp the end furthest away into your frame using the wing-nut. (Do not be lured to tighten with pliers as this weakens the screw thread).
Push gently against the handle with your chest which will cause the frame to bend, and tighten up the 2nd wing-nut to protect the blade.
Release the frame and inspect the tension of the blade by plucking it. (Failure to secure your blade with the right tension will result in it breaking as soon as you start to saw).

Sawing curves: Curves call for much shorter strokes and require an upright sawing position. You need to gently turn the saw along the curve with each cut, making sure not to force the blade.

Troubleshooting:.

Why Pierce? When you need access to a location which would otherwise be hard or impossible to reach e.g. the centre of a circle, piercing is needed. By drilling a little hole you provide access to the saw blade which can then be fed through and re-clamped into the frame, allowing you to saw from the within out, rather than the outside in.

Fixing:.

Pendant Drill: A pendant motor is a multi-purpose, mechanised tool which has a suspended motor and a flexible shaft connected to a hand piece, which includes the chuck. It is controlled by a foot pedal and can be used with a huge range of various attachments including drill bits.

Scriber: A scriber is a fine marking tool with a narrow and long tip. It is utilized to scribe designs onto metal and can be utilized to mark the positions for drilling.

Rotary Hand Drill: Rotary hand drills have the motor consisted of within the hand piece and either run off of the power supply or can be charged up to utilize cordless. They have the exact same multi-purpose functionality of a pendant drill and can be used with a wide range of devices. Rotary hand drills can be utilized in conjunction with a drill stand to make sure vertical drilling.

Conserve this for later on.

My saw blades keep breaking: Dont misery this is perfectly typical and practise makes ideal. Examine the tension of your blade for slackness and make sure you are using the correct blade size/metal mix.

Drill bits: The most common kind of drill bits are twist drills which cut when turned in a clockwise direction. They are made from a range of toughened products and variety in size from 0.3 mm upwards. Drills can become blunt remarkably quickly so its suggested to buy multiples of the sizes you utilize most frequently.

My arm is hurting: Check your seating position is proper and attempt to unwind. Likewise dont be tempted to force the saw, you are just directing it so let the blade will do the work.